Category Archives: Shooting hardware

Rifles and their parts

Operation Quarter Lord, the 25 Creedmoor

I suppose you could say I’ve come full circle, I started this game with a .25 caliber rifle, and after many many years I have a new one. I learned much with that first rifle, a Ruger M77 in 25-06, I still have it, and I dont think I’ll ever get rid of it.

My love for the 1/4 bore was cut short, by the lack of high Ballistic Coefficient bullets. There is a good assortment of 115-120 grain bullets, but many of them peeter out long before my then goal of one thousand yards. So despite claiming many of my first’s, the 25-06 went to the back of the safe.
In the defiance of time, I always had a 1/4” hole in my soul. Turns out that I wasn’t alone, and some folks with impressive math skills finally saddled the long range quarter-horse. Black Jack Bullets is a new manufacturer with a specialty in high BC 25’s.
As soon as I had spoken with Miles and Logan, I was convinced that my old love of the 25 needed to be rekindled. I almost immediately started Operation Quarter Lord, my goal; a .257 rifle that I could build light, and haul all over these Rocky Mountains to take antelope, deer, and even elk.
Due to the piles of 6.5 Creedmoor brass I had laying around, I decided to go with the 25 Creedmoor. I wanted to stay with a mag fed short action, and with Black Jack’s new high BC bullet (.330G7) it would outperform even the heaviest 6.5 Creedmoor loads.

From Blackjackbullets.com

The project came together very quickly, parts started arriving, and my gunsmith took minimal arm twisting to spin it up. We started with a Tikka T3 action, then added an X-Caliber .25 caliber, seven twist blank. Cut to finish at twenty two inches, because I dont like long rifles. All that was left, was a chassis system. I have always been a big fan of KRG, so I took this opportunity to get hands on their new Bravo chassis, it’s rigid and intuitive design was a perfect fit for this project that I wanted to keep light, but tight. Everything was cut, chambered threaded, and finished at ES Tactical, Eric does great work, and Im beginning to lose track of how many barrels of his I have.

With a twenty MOA scope base mounted on the Tikka, I mounted up my new scope, the RTS Mod 5 6-24X50 from Riton Optics. You can read more about the scope here: Riton RTS Mod5.
For rings I went with Aadland Engineering thirty milimeter HD rings, Mr. Aadland makes top notch mounts and I’ve always loved the quality.

Now that I had the rifle basically built, it was time to start manufacturing the top fueled cartridges that would make the Xcaliber hum. I started fireforming the Alpha Munitions 6.5 Creedmoor brass. I considered myself lucky to have such high quality components available. Alpha makes probably the best brass money can buy, and their small rifle primer brass was perfect for this high pressure project. To make the 25 Creedmoor brass, I swapped my Redding 6.5 Creedmoor die’s bushing out for a .281. Then I would run the lubed neck over a .257 expander ball. I was amazed at how consistent the Alpha brass was, seating depths were extremely uniform due to the constant neck tension. Looking back, I’d probably go with a .282 bushing, to work the brass less.

I also tried several other brass manufacturers, just for the sake of science. I made 25 Creedmoor brass out of Hornady, Lapua (SP), Federal, and Petersen. As you might imagine, the Federal and Hornady had some pressure issues and stiff extraction with the hottest loads. Even the Petersen was a little sticky, but the small primer cases won the day for sure. Both Lapua and Alpha had zero stiff extraction, but the Alpha took a smidge more powder. This allowed for a non compressed load, with the best velocity, and no pressure related problems. Alpha is definitely the way to go.

With both bullets and brass so rare, I was very slow and methodical in my loading. The long pointed tips of the 131 Ace seemed to fit just fine in my 6.5 seating die, and despite their long nose, they still fit the AI mag. I seated the bullets twenty thousandths off the lands, and charged the cases with 42.7 grains of Hodgdon H4350.

Hornady 120 HP’s were used for fire forming

The chronoed loads with the 131 Blackjacks averaged 2930fps, with single digit SD numbers. The groups fired were easily 1/2 MOA, and if I wasn’t so terrible at shooting groups, they’d likely cut in half. The X caliber barrel obviously was a big part of the accuracy, which wasn’t a surprise to me as the other X caliber’s I have shot were also very accurate. And even though we cut it at 22 inches the velocity was right where I had hoped it would be.

L to R: .25 Ace131, 6.5 Barnes 140, 6.5 Berger 140, 6.5 Hornady 140

The main appeal of the Ace 131 is obviously the BC, which is advertised at .330(G7), I have found that number to be fairly conservative.
Unlike many manufacturers, Blackjack must not inflate their data. After punching in all the data to various ballistic engines, I was consistently shooting over targets by a minute or two. The only way to compensate for it was to true up the BC to a slightly higher number. Once I did that, my Trasol program was predicting the bullet path close enough to make cold bore hits on 1-2MOA targets at 575,840, and 1057, each with a follow up confirmation hit. All this in a very switchy wind as a storm came in, the Ace didnt seem to mind. With my average DA here in the high desert, the Ace should stay supersonic to almost a mile.

My next project for this rifle is hunting season, which is only a few days away. I might make it easier on Junior by just taking the one rifle for both of us, and any deer within half a mile would be foolish to show his tines. With a trajectory nearly as flat as my 7SAUM shooting 183 Sierra Match Kings, but the tender recoil of a Creedmoor, I cant imagine a sweeter little deer rifle. And first chance I get I’ll put it up against wild Wyoming’s pronghorn as well, but the likely precursor will be Rocky Mountain Elk.

My very first elk fell to a single shot from that old 25-06, and with the added power and accuracy of the Blackjack Ace 131 I am very confident both Junior and I can pull it off again.

Im a hunter at heart, so thats where I always turn towards. But the 25 Creedmoor would really shine in a competition setup. With its light recoil, super flat trajectory, and great accuracy, it would stand ahead of most of it’s 6.5 competitors.

This project is still very fresh, so I will continue to update this post with new information as I get it. There will be acompanying youtube videos soon, on both the rifle and its components. Follow my social media pages for frequent updates, and for answers to your questions. And follow the links here in the article to get to those mentioned.

-CBM

Yankee Hill Machine Resonator 30 Cal.

 

A long time ago, on a dry desert plain, the boys and I were shooting at a distant prairie dog town.

We all ran muzzle brakes at the time, because who wants recoil? Spotting your own hits is always handy sure, but muzzle brakes require good hearing protection. This lead to a firing line of yelling back and forth because we were all to cheap to buy electronic hearing protection. It didn’t take me long to see the value of a good suppressor.

unrepentantly stolen from YHM.net

 

My first can (as they are commonly referred to) was a Yankee Hill Machine, it was a YHM Phantom that graced my muzzle. And I still use it frequently to this day.

I never looked back after that, it seemed almost ridiculous to shoot without suppression anymore. It didn’t take long for my shooting buddies to catch on, and soon we were all running quite a spread of suppressors. After multiple begrudging transactions with the ATF, I’ve got cans to outfit everything from rimfires up to forty-fives. I cant seem to get enough of them, like most people, once I shot suppressed I never wanted anything more.

The new Resonator from Yankee Hill Machine just happened to cross my path recently, and much like it’s little brother the Turbo 5.56 I was immediately hooked. The Resonator is a QD mount suppressor, it threads onto a muzzle brake that is attached to the muzzle. It is quickly spun on, and held captive by a spring loaded ratchet to keep it from coming loose under fire. The gas is sealed by a conical shoulder on the brake, keeping carbon buildup away from the threads. The construction of the Resonator is stainless steel and inconel, and again like the smaller Turbo, the simple structure makes the can both light and cost effective.

The muzzle brake comes with the Resonator, but there are an assortment of brakes and thread pitches available from YHM allowing you to purchase extras to fit any applicable hosts.

I started out shooting the Resonator on a Desert Tech SRS A1 Covert, the rifle was currently setup with a 308 barrel. But I could have dropped in a 300WM barrel as well, the Resonator is rated for up to 300RUM.
Suppressors almost always add a point of impact shift, its almost impossible to add weight and length to the barrel without doing so. The Resonator was no different, I re-zeroed the rifle, which was now hitting several inches high at 100yds after installing the YHM. Shooting the sixteen inch 308 was much more pleasant with a suppressor on the end, and as usual the rifle seamed to shoot better suppressed. The added weight of the can, and the buffering of the report I feel are both beneficial to accuracy.

I also tried the Resonator on a Desert Tech MDR, a short stroke piston 308 auto-loader. The Resonator worked great on the rifle, keeping recoil and noise down to a reasonable level. And the YHM 4302 brake did an OK job at mitigating the recoil all by itself. Any time you put a can on a gas operated semi auto, you’ll find more gas coming out of the rifle, turning the gas settings down on the rifle made it quite tolerable.

Many times I went back and forth from rifle to rifle, letting it cool down to keep from burning myself, I couldn’t find anything about the Resonator to complain about. Sure, you can always say they should be lighter, that’s a given. But the Resonator 30 at 16 ounces is still quite light considering the price point of its competitors. I suppose if I had one request to the folks at YHM, it could be a direct thread option of the resonator. That would probably make a few precision rifle shooters happy, and maybe dip the price point a little further, who knows…

The Resonator is a great option I think for anyone looking to get into the class III market. It would work great on any AR variant, small or large frame. It works great as a companion to a precision rifle too, the price point of the Resonator makes it ideal as a first can, or as another one to add to your NFA collection. Go to YHM.net for more info.

 

-CBM

And of course, here is a video:

ES Tactical 6.5Creedmoor Barrel for the MDR

Just when I thought I was up to my ear’s in MDR, Eric Smith from ES Tactical found it expedient to dump another huge helping of MDR in my lap. It wouldn’t take long to figure out which way this would go.

As a guy with too many irons in the fire already, I took the 6.5 Creedmoor barrel with a grain of salt (I know you all feel my pain). Had it not been for my stellar experience with Eric’s work, I might have even backburnered this project. But instead, I took the first opportunity to stab my MDR with this latest addition to the pile.

Ive shot the MDR quite a bit, some might even say more than anyone else. The MDR is a multi caliber bullpup rifle. The rifle was first available in 308, it will soon be available to the public in 223. But for those of you that already have the gun, you can wet your multi caliber whistle without waiting by ordering a 6.5 Creedmoor from ES Tactical. I shot quite a bit of 308 in the beginning, and I loved having so much power in such a little package. With the 308 barrel installed, the MDR can put down a serious amount of hate and anger. But it is still quite capable of MOA accuracy, and at distance as well. Just a short while ago, the 223/556 conversion was made available to me. In the short time I spent with it, I became very enamored. The minimal recoil, and outstanding accuracy made the compact MDR even more desirable, you can read more about that here.

So you can imagine my excitement when the option came to try out the Creedmoor in my beloved little rifle. The Creedmoor offers the same accuracy as the other cartridge options, but less recoil than the 308, and a better envelope for distance as well.

I couldn’t resist the appeal, so I hurried up to my local shooting hole, and warmed up my trigger finger. Upon arrival I ran a few magazines of 223 through the rifle, just to get my trigger finger into shape, then set to swap the rifle over to the Creedmoor.


The MDR as seen with 223rem barrel (installed with YHM Turbo) Sixteen inch 308win, and the ES Tactical eighteen inch 6.5CM barrel

Since the 6.5 and the 308 share the same boltface, magazine, and a few other parts, there is only a need for a barrel assembly should your rifle be a 308. Since my rifle was currently a 223, I had to swap bolts, remove the magwell block and switch the magazine catch.
To see how the MDR is converted from one caliber to another click here

It took a few minutes, and I was ready to make some noise. Except I wouldn’t. I hate shooting without the proper muzzle accoutrements, so I attached one of my favorite suppressors, the Silencerco Hybrid. The barrel assembly from ES Tactical came with a six position gas key, allowing for refined tuning of the rifle. I found it quite unnecessary to figet with, as the rifle functioned flawlessly, it consumed and expelled everything I fed it.

Speaking of diet, I tried a few different things. I started out with Desert Tech munitions 140 grain match, I have always had good luck with it, and today was no exception. I also tried some of the more popular brands, such as Hornady 120 Grain Match As well as the gold standard Federal Gold Medal Match 130 grain And the very popular Prime 130 Grain Match

The accuracy results from this fine selection varied slightly, the DTM, and Hornady gave the best results. Both of them printed groups that were mostly hole, and little paper. The Prime and Gold Medal were not too far behind, it is my guess that the Berger and Norma 130 grain bullets used may perhaps be a bit more finicky with seating depth. Which may explain the larger patterns. DTM shown in blue, Hornady in red, Federal in yellow, and Prime in green

As you can see in the groups the stringing is horizontal on the better ones, it seemed to follow the heating of the barrel. The first three or four shots in each group were either touching or stacked. It was usually the fourth, fifth or sixth shot that were the outliers (I may have lost count a few times, I was enjoying myself😌). The lesser groups didnt seem to have any particular pattern. I only ran a chronograph on the DTM 140 grain ammunition, the average over a couple magzines worth of ammo showed 2610fps. I was quite pleased with the velocity from this 18 inch barrel, with a MV like that, coupled with MOA or better accuracy, this thing would be very useful for anything inside 1000 yards.

Being as familiar as I am with the platform, I have gotten used to it’s quirks and folleys. This familiarity has helped me avoid some of the little things that cause malfunctions, so it didn’t surprise me at all that I experienced no failures. I did note that the brass was coming out pretty dirty but otherwise fine, I suppose I could have dialed down the gas pressure a little after all.

The thread protector, threads, and crown of the ES Tactical 6.5Creedmoor barrel

In total, I shot probably 80 or so rounds (not counting the 223 appetizer). It was smooth shooting, the recoil was very mild, and with the suppressor mounted up, I could shoot all day. This setup would be awesome for a threegun carbine, it’d also make the perfect truck gun, or patrol rifle. So many possibilities, I doubt it will be long before the next flavor MDR comes along.

Should you find youself in need of a Creed for your MDR, give Eric a call over at ES Tactical, and dont forget he cuts awesozme barrels for your SRS, or just about anything else you might want too.

-CBM

Here is the video:

The Desert Tech MDR in 5.56

There has been lots of excitement surrounding the Desert Tech MDR lately. With some rifles shipping since late last year, and many more about to drop, the hype has reached its peak. The Micro Dynamic Rifle  brings Desert Tech’s multi caliber capability to a an auto loading rifle. All of the rifles that have been delivered to customer so far have been 7.62 rifles, but I got a lucky chance to get an up close look at some of the first 5.56 rifles. After a few hours of shooting it, I decided to write a little more about it.

The MDR is a bullpup rifle, and currently there are 7.62 and 5.56 conversions available for it. I have spent extensive time with the 7.62 versions of the rifle, and have found it to be a very fun rifle. The function of the rifle is very intuitive, the controls may take a moment to get used to but are otherwise very friendly. In my experience, the controls wear in with use, and only get better. The initial feel is that the mag release is stiff, and the trigger can be a bit scratchy. But with some range time, both of those issues go away, and the trigger is quite nice. I dont even think about the mag release anymore, it is smooth and easy to operate.

The MDR has big shoes to fill. As many of you are aware, Desert Tech makes some of the best precision rifles available today. And having sired the MDR, Desert Tech is expected to bring the same quality and presentation its other rifles are famous for. Quality triggers, better accuracy than the competition, all in a multi-caliber rifle shorter than its peers.

Having had plenty of trigger time with the 7.62 version of the MDR, I was very excited to try out the smaller conversion in 223/556. I was actually lucky enough to assemble the rifle from scratch. Or at least, from a small pile of parts. Click here to see assembly.

After some humbling experiences, I was happy to see the gun work like it had been built by the pros. It took very minimal tuning to get the rifle running just like a swiss watch. It was time to take it out into the wild, and get it hot.

 

Coldboremiracle Junior feeling out the MDR

The 5.56 MDR was a dream to shoot, comparing it to the 7.62 version of the rifle, which has significantly more bark. Recoil was negligible, a smooth and solid impulse. The ejections system pumped the hot brass out forward and to my right, making nice little piles. The rifle manages almost like a pistol, it is very easy to keep on target even during sustained firing. I used the gas block mounted Desert Tech Reflex Optic for much of the shooting. But it didn’t take long for the marksman in me to come out, so I switched over to a Kahles 312i for some accuracy testing. After all, only accurate guns are interesting, at least to me.

I also couldn’t pass up the opportunity to try out my new Yankee Hill Machine Turbo 556 suppressor. The MDR was a perfect host for it, and its uncivilized to shoot unsuppressed. You can read more about the Turbo here.

I was shooting some 55 grain ball ammo for the majority of the trip. This same ammo usually prints groups in the one inch category with my other custom 223 rifles, and in the MDR it was about the same. Five shots was probably just under an inch at 100 yards. I also wanted to try one of my pet AR loads for long range, which included a Hornady 75 grain BTHP and some RL-15.

After getting the rifle sighted in, I was quite impressed with the MDR’s accuracy. This was the first group I shot after zeroing the rifle, its only three shots but clearly shows the rifle’s potential.  The MDR clearly likes this load with the Hornady’s, so I may have to revisit with more ammo , and more range.

The rifle functioned great through the three or four hundred rounds that I put through it. There were only a couple issues that I quickly resolved, a spring that is part of the ejection system had not been installed properly. I cant blame anyone but myself there, and after I corrected the problem it was flawless.

I tried out several different magazines in the rifle. First I had to try the classic GI metal magazines that surely litter ever gun room across the country. The mags fit perfectly, fed like a million bucks, and even dropped clear with no need for assistance. I also had a couple Brownells Gi clone magazines. I bought them a few years ago on sale, as far as I can tell they did a great job cloning the old magazines but with new coatings and Brownells quality. In addition to those two types, I also tried out some standard Magpul Pmags, in both 20 round, and 30 round configurations. I am happy to report that all of them worked great, no feeding issues at all. That should come as good news to all those prospective MDR owners who already have a broad magazine inventory.

Another big concern to those interested in the MDR is the adjustable gas system. The rifle I build had a three position gas selector, though I understand that a selector with more settings (five or six) will soon be available for all MDR rifles. That said, this rifle worked great with the standard three position gas selector. I ran it on adverse for the first hundred or so rounds, to help break it in. I then changed it over to normal, and then to the suppressed setting when I attached the suppressor. I can see where a gas valve with more choices would be helpful, as even on the suppressed setting there was enough gas exiting the receiver that I could smell it. But honestly it wasn’t a big deal to me, I kept shooting along without any concern. If you shoot in an enclosed or indoor range, I could see it maybe becoming an issue. But easily resolved with a lower gas setting.

I also decided to see how the gun would run without the ejection chute installed, I have seen and been asked many times how it works. For me it isn’t a big issue, since in my experience most ejection issues/jams in the MDR are not related to the chute. But I can understand why some would want to know, so I gave it a try. With the chute removed, the gun ejected brass directly out and to the rear, about to my four or five o’clock. It occasionally would throw one to the three o’clock, but it didn’t seem to care, as it continued to chew through the rounds. Speaking of chewing, the 556 conversion on the MDR seems to be fairly mild on the brass. I assume it is because of the larger extractor to rim ratio, as well a smaller gas volume and recoil impulse.

My overall impression with the 556 MDR was one of pure enjoyment. Perhaps Im just used to shooting the 762 version, and other heavier recoiling rifles, but I just couldn’t stop pulling the trigger on this gun. The accuracy makes this rifle at the top of my wish list, and I intend on getting some more time behind it soon. Perhaps a coyote hunt or some other adventure. I will be getting one as soon as conditions permit, and probably a 6.5Creedmoor barrel to go with it for more serious work such as distance.

For those of you waiting for the 556 MDR, hang in there if you can, it is worth it.

-CBM

Oh Wait! there’s a Video too:

Is Shot Placement More Important than Bullets?

Before I dive too deep into this, I would like to make one thing perfectly clear; I hold no grudge against those who disagree with me, these are only my opinions. I believe that the ancient tradition of hunting carries differing values and consequences depending on those individuals who engage in it. I believe in ethical hunting practices, though yours and mine may differ slightly, or immeasurably. And though we may have differing opinions, I believe that we as hunters must cohere as a group. Those that would refute our right to hunt see no difference between the crowded categories of hunters, and divided we will surely fall. I believe every hunter should do his best to make clean, quick, and effective kills. I also believe that every hunter should pursue (within the law) the techniques and tackle that he/she is most comfortable with that will allow them to do such.
In this article, I’d like to discuss both bullets and shot placement, and how those things apply to making ethical shots on game animals. We’ll also touch on a few subjects taboo to some, such as match bullets, and long range hunting as they relate to the subject.
With that in mind, I will start with a question; what causes a quick and clean kill? For the sake of time, and simple minds like my own, I may over simplify a few things. In layman’s terms, a quick kill is caused by applying sufficient energy to vital organs causing a temporary or preferably permanent interruption in their functions. This interruption in life sustaining organs is what causes death. The time it takes for an animal to succumb to death, depends greatly on the blend of how severe an impact is applied, and specifically where it is applied. A very simplified example of the opposing ends of that spectrum could be; A 22LR placed point blank between the eyes would certainly kill most game animals, but the same game animal shot with a .22LR at 100yds, (between the eyes or not) would likely survive, or at minimum get away un-recovered.

Overkill is a myth, something is either dead, or it isn’t. When discussing the use of a 300 Magnum versus something smaller like a 308, a wise man once told me: “it’s not going to get up and ask if you have anything bigger”. Which is likely why so many magnums and super-cartridges exist, and are particularly marketed to the hunting public.
Obviously for general North American big game hunting a 22LR is not enough, and a 500NitroExpress for example is more than enough. Most hunters favor the heavier than necessary, in order to ensure a humane kill, but not so much as to be wasteful of the prey they are after.

Heart shots work every time, especially if they come apart, like these muley’s did. (top left) was done by a Hornady 180BTSP/300WM/2900FPS from 280yds (Top right) was done by a Sierra 175SMK/308/2700FPS from 250yds (Bottom left) was done by a Sierra 175SMK/308/2700FPS from about 60yds (Bottom right) was done by a Hornady 162Amax/7SAUM/3050FPS from 430yds

The bullet is obviously a crucial part of the sequence of a quick and effective kill. It is the bullet after all that punctures our prey, causing damage to vital organs, allowing us to take the animal.
Many different manufacturers make an assortment of bullets. Technology has made traditional bullet construction simpler, as well as opened the door to completely new bullet structures and designs. Cup and core bullets used to be the standard, but today’s latest bullets feature multi-chambered, bonded cores, new alloys, monolith, as well as many other designs.

Light, fast bullets can have explosive energy on target 223Rem

All of these, could serve well depending on your intended target. For example, thin skinned varmints are usually engaged with thin jacketed cup and core bullets with either open tips, or a poly tip of some kind. The idea behind this light construction is that the bullet will open rapidly, and expend all its energy on small animals such as rabbits or prairie dogs. If a bullet designed for big game was fired at such a thin and small animal, it may not even rupture, or deform enough to cause much more than a hole.

A very large animal like those found in Africa have thick and strong bodies, a lightly constructed thin jacketed cup/core bullet would likely blow up just under the skin, without causing sufficient if any damage to vital organs. For this reason, many dangerous game hunters use bonded or monolith (solid) bullets that drive deep into tissue. Because all the energy in the world will not be effective if it doesn’t reach your intended target (the life sustaining organs). So choosing enough bullet is key.
It may be another over-simplification, but when it comes to hunting, my criteria for acceptable performance is based on the first question I asked above. Can my chosen bullet discharge enough energy (damage) to my target (vital organs) to bring the animal down satisfactorily?
In order to answer that question, there are a couple other criteria that must be entertained. Velocity is one of those. Velocity times mass is what creates the energy we need, and a bullet needs sufficient energy to do its damage on our target. If too small a bullet is used, it may not penetrate enough to transfer its energy into the right spot. Furthermore, if the target is too far away, a small bullet may shed all its energy just to get there with none left over to penetrate. Bullet mass then is another criteria to consider. Typically, energy is driven by either bigger bullets, or faster velocities. Either of which will ramp up the energy impact on your target.
This doe antelope was taken with a heavy for caliber bullet from a relatively small cartridge (75 grains/223Rem/2850FPS) but good shot placement put her on the ground quickly, even at 330 yards

There is such a thing as too much however, for example; a 150 grain bullet fired at 2900 feet per second from a 30-06 will work fine for most big game animals. But if you fired that same bullet pushed to the max from something like a 300RUM, it may be leaving the muzzle at 3400+ FPS. That may not sound like a bad thing to some, but it depends on what your intentions are. If you are shooting a deer at 100 yds, then the slower velocity bullet would work as intended. Whereas the high velocity with the exact same bullet would likely blow up on contact. That’s not to say it wont work, it just may take a lot of your venison with it. If you took the same two loads out to 500 yds however, the slower velocity bullet may not perform well, and the high velocity load may work perfect due to the velocity and energy lost in flight. These are just some of the reasons to think through your equipment and hunting practices beforehand.

When selecting a bullet for hunting, the size or weight of the bullet must be adequate for the job, and as I mentioned above the velocity upon impact must also be sufficient to take down our game. One must keep in mind the variation in velocity depending on the distance to target. A bullet that performs well on a deer at two hundred yards, may not work well at all when used at five hundred yards.

A small bullet to the right place is far more effective than a bullet in the wrong place, even if it doesn’t pass through. This animal dropped in its tracks, so there was no need to track it. .257 Sierra 120gr HP

Another point that should be discussed regarding energy and impact; sensitive targets require less energy. A bullet that has insufficient energy to penetrate and damage heart and lungs, may still have enough energy to penetrate and break the neck. Scenarios such as these, are sketchy, and not for aspiring marksmen. Terminal Ballistics is a fascinating subject, about the behavior of projectiles when they impact a target. We have danced around some parts of it, but regarding the current point of discussion I feel it is important to discuss in more depth.

This young bull took a 175 Sierra Match King between the eyes at 540 yards, keeping within the effective range of your bullet/cartridge combination will ensure enough energy to kill properly (308Win/175SMK/2700)

As a bullet makes contact with an animal, there are many forces at work. The vector of the bullet itself, the variable resistance of the flesh and bone of the prey, as well as unknown numbers of tiny inputs by other forces. The speed, direction, and yaw of a bullet will all affect how it opens (or ruptures), the higher the impact velocity, the faster and more violent it will open. If the bullet is excessively yawed (by wind or some other force) upon impact, it may exacerbate or change the angle or path the bullet takes through our prey animal. The structure of bones, hair, and meat could also greatly affect the path of our bullet. Striking between two ribs, a bullet may continue straight, whereas striking a rib at a deflecting angle, may cause it to turn. In addition to these, there could be many other forces at work that will affect our bullet’s impact, and behavior immediately after. An unseen blade of grass or twig, a muscle that is flexed vs. relaxed, all of these things could have some input on the path of least resistance that our bullet will seek. That is why we will never see two identical wound paths. Physics would demand that a heavier bullet be less affected by these forces, trying to maintain its trajectory. It is for this reason that some seasoned marksmen favor heavy bullets and calibers, as well as heavy for caliber bullets.

This is where the bullet’s construction also comes into play. A solid or bonded bullet is less likely to rupture or break apart, and therefore maintain its path with less deviation. While bullets with a weaker construction may come apart, cup and core often separate leaving the copper jacket on one path and the lead core on another. Depending on your target this may or may not be an issue.

Both of these bucks were shot with the same bullet from the same gun, a 140 grain Barnes Match Burner (260Rem @2930fps). The larger deer at 60 yards, and the smaller deer at 1,006 yards. Both fell from one shot, and never got back up

Let’s look at a hypothetical situation; you are hunting whitetail deer with a 270, shooting 130 grain bullets at ranges from 50 to 400 yards. Sounds perfectly fine right? That’s because it is, the energy generated by a 130 grain bullet at standard 270win velocities around 2800 feet per second generate over 2000 pounds of energy at the muzzle. That is twice the amount of killing energy suggested by most wildlife agencies. But what happens when that same whitetail buck of yours, runs out to the five or six-hundred yard line? The gears in your head may start turning, and a serious controversy may develop. For some people, it is a simple answer; don’t shoot. But for others, perhaps tempted by the large antler rack making its escape, it may be more difficult. For the 270 load I mentioned above, operating at 500 plus yards may be towards the outer limits of its effective envelope. At those distances, it’s kinetic energy has dropped significantly, and possibly below the suggested 1000 pound threshold needed to kill a big game animal. And we haven’t even discussed whether or not the hunter in this scenario has the needed skill to hit the deer at this range. So with all things considered, not taking the shot is the safe bet.

Switching up even just a little bit, can change the stakes (or steaks) into our favor. Remember what I said earlier about heavy for caliber bullets? The 130 grain bullet in a 270win is a fairly standard load, but you could also step up to something like a 150 grain bullet. And when comparing the energy of the two different bullets, you’d be surprised how much difference it makes. The energy of the 130gr bullet drops below 1000 pounds near the 500-550 yard line, but the heavier 150gr bullet carries its energy further, and doesn’t drop below the 1000 pound mark until nearly 700 yards. So, by shooting a heavier bullet, in the same rifle, you theoretically just added another 150-200 yards to your usable envelope.
It would be irresponsible to take shots based on energy alone, as I mentioned earlier, all the energy in the world won’t do its job if it is not put in the right place. It is therefore paramount to consider as well, the shooter’s ability to place the shot in the right spot. This may be a much harder debate to resolve, due to the many variables that may affect him/her.

On your best day, in perfect conditions, with your hunting rifle and ammunition; can you hit a ten inch or smaller circle at 500 yards? What about on a cold windy day, under pressure? After running over a hill? With daylight waning? If the answer to any of those questions is no, or even maybe, then you shouldn’t be taking that shot. If you’ve ever said “I can’t believe I made that shot”, then you probably shouldn’t have taken it. Any shot you take on an animal, should be a shot you know you can make. It should be second nature, after practicing over and over, in the same conditions, and same distances.
A hit should come as no surprise to a marksman. The same could be said for seven hundred yards, or any other distance. If your skill level or equipment limits you to one hundred yards, then that is as far as you should be shooting to ensure clean and quick kills.

This was a heart shot on an elk from 540 yards, being prepared will help put meat on the table, and practice brings confidence when the pressure is on (300WSM/180BTSP/2900fps)

This is another elk that was shot on the run, a well placed shot put her on the ground in seconds. 300WSM/190SMK/2950FPS

Let’s bring the discussion back toward bullets and their design, does the shape of a bullet affect its ability to kill? It can, and does so depending greatly on how it is applied. A bullet with a flat meplat (tip) like those used in tubular magazine rifles, has a broader surface with which to apply its energy. Whereas a bullet with a sharply tapered tip may not open until it has penetrated the target and met with resistance. A solid bullet may not rupture at all, and simply push its way through.

But how do these different shapes affect the bullet in flight? A flat meplat may be great for delivering heavy impacts, but they don’t fly as well. At least not as well as their sleek and pointed cousins. Most ballistically superior bullets feature long and slender tips, often times they are hollow, or use some kind of polymer cone. The tail end of the bullets are often tapered as well, these features allow the bullet to slip through the air as efficiently as possible. The point is to keep the bullets from shedding all their energy before they get to the target, in addition to that, it helps them sneak through the streams of wind they are sure to encounter. As bullets travel through wind, the force can affect the trajectory of the bullet, so a better ability to slip through wind bands will keep the bullet as close as possible to its original trajectory.

Bullets begin to slow down and loose energy as soon as they leave the muzzle, the longer they can hold onto their velocity and energy they will stay more stable. The added stability in keeping bullets on track to their target we see and interpret as more accuracy. These modern technological advances in bullet design, have made it possible to put more energy on our target, even at extended ranges. These are not your Grandfather’s bullets anymore. There is a big difference between a 150 grain flat nosed bullet, and a modern 150 grain boat tail hollow point. They may carry the same weight, but one carries it further, better.
A 175SMK (Top) found just under the offside skin of an elk, (Below) A Lapua 300Gr Scenar that traveled at an angle through 2-3ft of elk at 400yds

So, we have plenty of information to chew on now. Bullet construction, the velocity at which they impact the target, the terminal ballistics of bullets when they hit our prey, and the skill of the hunter pulling the trigger. These are certainly not all of the aspects that we need to evaluate nor are they in that particular order, but they surely are some of the most vital.

Some of you may need to take a deep breath here, as I mention match bullets. You may have noticed that in discussing bullets construction I didn’t touch this point, but I will talk about it now. Match, or competition bullets, are used for shooting targets during the course of a shooting event or tournament.

This pronghorn only gave a frontal shot, so she took one to the neck, and dropped in her tracks. 165SierraBTHP/300WM/2900FPS

These events usually feature paper or steel targets at various ranges to test the skill of shooters. Match bullets have evolved over the years to become as ballistically efficient as possible.

The design and manufacturing processes are designed around minimizing drag, augmenting consistency, improving its ability to overcome air resistance. The obvious purpose for these enhancements is to give competitive shooters as much of an accuracy edge as they can get.

I use match bullets for hunting. I don’t use them because they are suggested for hunting, in fact many manufactures suggest against using them. Keep in mind these are the same people who want to sell you “premium hunting bullets”. Having overheard more than a couple discussions on hunting ammunition, I haven’t been convinced that they make and sell premium hunting ammunition for any reason other than the fact that people buy premium hunting ammunition. And people usually are willing to pay more for it as well. Clearly most hunters feel the importance of what they are doing, and are willing to put their money where their mouth is. There is so much more to it than that however, as we’ve discussed here.
I use match bullets for several other reasons, I shoot quite a bit, and I enjoy it immensely. And in an effort to get the most bang for my buck, I use the bullets that give me great performance, and at a price that I can purchase them in large quantities. Match bullets fill both of those purposes quite well.

My Father always told me practice makes perfect, and in marksmanship it holds just as true. Shooting frequently, and practicing proper skills will indeed make you a better shot. And practicing these skills in the natural environment will help give experience with variables like wind, angular shots, and obstacles.

All of this will make you a better shot, be it at game, or just plain old paper. Consistent shooting bullets only add to these skill building practices.
One of the many reasons I hunt with match bullets is because I hardly see an upside to adding variables to my shooting. After shooting hundreds or even thousands of “practice” rounds in a year, I don’t see why I would change to a different bullet right when my shots count the most. Nature is very good at giving me variables, with wind, temperature sways, and any number of other things. I don’t need to add to this storm by introducing my own variation in bullets.

Here is another Mule Deer that took a 140gr Amax to the neck from around 500yds. Terrible terrain, and daylight fading required immediate anchoring of this guy. 140Amax/260rem/2850fps

Some claim that match bullets perform poorly on game animals, claiming that they “pencil through” or they come apart. This has not been my experience at all, and though it may happen to some, I have seen it happen with bullets labeled “Hunting” as well. There are hunting bullets that can effectively reproduce match bullet performance, as well as other bullets that claim to do it all. There is nothing at all wrong with them, and I am sure they function as advertised.

Another pronghorn, this one fell to the 175SMK/308Win/2700FPS

Some claim that match bullets perform poorly on game animals, claiming that they “pencil through” or they come apart. This has not been my experience at all, and though it may happen to some, I have seen it happen with bullets labeled “Hunting” as well. There are hunting bullets that can effectively reproduce match bullet performance, as well as other bullets that claim to do it all. There is nothing at all wrong with them, and I am sure they function as advertised.

I prefer to keep consistency as much as I can control. I can achieve that by using one bullet, and one load, for every caliber I shoot. That way every time I shoot, it is the same familiar performance I am used to. I shoot what works for me, as should everyone else. I use match bullets because the same advantages they give to competitors, help me make better shots on my game.

Consistency breeds accuracy, and like mad scientists we scour every possible way to uniform our loads, turning necks, setting tension, tipping bullets, etc. Why not use the consistency to our predatory advantage? The game we hunt deserves that. Depending on the target animal, as well as distance, and conditions, a miss could be as little as a few inches. Keeping my shots as close as possible to my point of aim elevates my chances of a clean kill.
I have found through experience over many years, that shot placement trumps all other factors. Through not just my own hunting experience, but that of many others as well. As you can see, it is demonstrated by the many photographs in this article. A bullet that strikes the vital organs of an animal is far more effective than one that doesn’t. I made a comment earlier about 22LR and 500NitroExpress, for a quick clean kill, a point-blank shot between the eyes with a 22LR is more effective than a double ham shot with the 500Nitro.

Consistent shooting and practice make predictable shots whether its a sticker, or a heart. Sub MOA consistency should be every marksman’s goal

We already discussed the reasoning why; the small amount of energy placed on the brain by a 22 is likely enough to damage it beyond function, while the incredible amount of energy from the 500 applied to the rear quarters may not be sufficient to acutely incapacitate the animal. Surely I am not encouraging or suggesting anyone to hunt big game with rim-fire cartridges, I am simply speaking hypothetically. And speaking of hypothetical, it’s certainly possible that the 500Nitro double ham shot scenario I conjectured above could work by severing a major artery, but you can’t and shouldn’t count on things like that.

Shot placement can trump things like bullet weight, bullet construction, magnum-headstamps, and almost any other factor. Perforated organs sustain no life. I’d prefer to take a shot to the lungs or heart with a small caliber bullet over a questionable shot with something big every time. I’ll admit that my opinion is biased, but it doesn’t come from reading internet posts and literature.
I remember buying premium hunting ammunition, thinking it was superior. Justifying the cost thinking it has to be better, maybe it was, maybe it wasn’t. It didn’t matter because it worked, everything I hit properly died. When I started shooting higher volumes of match ammunition, it just made sense to keep with what I could consistently hit my intended targets with. I switched over many years ago, and have shot nothing but match ammo. Nothing has changed over these many years, every animal I hit properly still dies.This Pronghorn took an 80grSMK/223Rem/2880FPS between the eyes. One of the advantages of such shots besides disabling it instantaneously, is a quick bleed-out due to the intact circulatory system, as well as minimal meat loss.

An important point that I feel should be brought up; All bullets can fail. Every bullet of every type can fail, and by fail I mean not perform to its designed standard. A Bullet can fail, and still kill the animal you are after. It doesn’t take much of an internet search to find stories, pictures, and cases of bullets doing strange things. Bullets that failed to open, or come apart. Just because a bullet is designed to open a certain way, doesn’t mean that it always does. There are all kinds of bullet fails, as well some outright strange things such as severe deviations in path, or blowing up on impact, etc. Certainly this is the exception not the rule, as for the most part, bullets almost always do what they were designed to do. This in part is why shot placement is so pertinent, if a bullet fails to function as intended at least you still have a hole through the animal’s vitals. The likelihood of a bullet failing to perform properly, is minuscule in comparison to the likely failure by the shooter.
There is and always has been a raging debate between those who shoot match bullets at game, and those who see it as a sin. The difference between them is that those who are successful at taking animals with match bullets usually have a multitude of pictures and stories of dead animals. Along with descriptive narration of what happened, and usually their best interpretation of what the bullet did. Much like those who use “hunting” bullets, when they accurately hit an animal’s vitals, everything works fine. Conversely those who are against using match bullets, usually have stories about “the one that got away”, etc. Whether it was bullet performance or not, we rarely see pictures or any conclusive evidence proving such. I suspect that the reason is either they never recovered the animal in question, or their pictures don’t align with their narrative about bullet performance. Or worst case scenario, pictures would show that their shot placement was actually questionable. Two of the three ideas suggest that the animal wasn’t hit properly.

Any kind of bullet placed in the right spot can do the job, this antelope took a 140Grain Barnes Match Burner to the back of the neck.

Many years ago, I was told by seasoned shooters that “you can’t do that”, which I found odd because I already had. I quit listening to people who think you can’t do something because they couldn’t. The best place to get information about something, is from those who do it, and the ones that do it the most. That is where I put my attention.
While I do spend much of my time in pursuit of game, I don’t lay any claim to being a professional, nor a forensic scientist, but I have never seen an animal hit properly get away. But I have seen plenty of them hit questionably, and go unrecovered. Minimal gains on the “drop clock” can be had with magnums, head shots, higher velocities, etc. But nothing can compensate for a well-placed shot.
Head shots, like this one (just above the suppressor) can be very effective, but aren’t always available (308/175SMK/2700fps)

There are many relevant arguments about bullets, some that I think deserve some discussion here. Many people believe that a “pass through” is the best possible scenario, with good reason. Having your target animal opened from both sides, surely gives more room for blood to escape. And a handy consequence to that is a more prominent blood trail, should you need to track them. While there is obviously nothing wrong with this idea, the primary objective should still be the vital organs, whether you pass through or not. I have seen many animals killed that did not pass through, but all the bullet’s energy was transferred into the vitals, killing the animal usually where it stood. A good blood trail is nice, a really good blood trail is short, but the best blood trail starts and stops at the animal’s feet.

Another common argument around campfires is bullet fragmentation. One of the many technological advances in bullets comes from new alloys and bonding process’. The purpose for these newer technologies is to help bullets stay together. As we discussed earlier, heavier bullets carry more energy. So a bullet that stays together during a pass through, will retain its ability to penetrate. While there is nothing wrong with these new designs, the new bullet styles have caused many to look down their nose at traditional cup and core type bullets. The reason is because so many of them come apart upon impact, I can remember on many occasions finding a separated copper jacket. Contrary to the belief of those looking down their noses, separated bullets seem to work just fine, (here is the kicker) As long as you hit them in the right spot. The separated jacket and core of a bullet is certainly capable of decisively damaging the vital organs. I have seen cases where the jacket separates inside the animal, and the lead core continues through exiting the opposite side of the animal. I’ve also seen where the two diverge as they pass through, each coming to rest in different places within the vitals. This is a perfect example of how a bullet can fail so to speak, but still do the job.

Bullet jackets frequently separate, but that doesn’t necessarily mean they wont work well. This deer only made it about 20 yards. The core passed through, leaving a 1″ exit wound (30-06/165BTSP/2820fps)

There is also an expansive host of misunderstood, and mistakenly articulated beliefs that proliferate occasionally through the hunting community. Let me share a couple examples that I’ve heard over the years; “The 25-06 is a piece of shit, it’s very inaccurate and even if you hit an animal, it does a piss poor job of killing it.” I heard this once from a neighbor who I thought was a hunter of prowess, but upon hearing this nonsense come from his mouth my opinion tarnished quickly. He continued to explain, about how once upon a time, he was hunting with a 25-06, and couldn’t manage to hit a deer. For some reason, he wasn’t able to understand that the caliber of the rifle has little to do with accuracy. It was more likely the rifle, ammunition, or he himself that was the problem. But none of that stopped him from badmouthing a perfectly respectable cartridge, with a well-known and distinguished history of performance. What’s more, how many impressionable people out there heeded his gibberish, and espoused their own ignorant version of the truth regarding the 25-06.
Another example once overheard that carried an equal amount of absurdity; “ My brother was angry because my 30-30 has more knock down power than his 300WM.” The evidence cited to support these generalizations, came from two incidents where a deer was shot by either rifle. One of the deer went straight to the ground, never to move again. And the second deer ran off, to be recovered some distance, and several shots later. Now, for anyone to consider this as evidence that a 30-30 has more knock down power than a 300WM is absurd, the most likely scenario is that the 30-30 shot was acute, and the 300WM shot wasn’t. But like the first example, it doesn’t stop the impressionable people out there who for one reason or another want to believe it.

Another elk that fell in her tracks (430yds) from one well placed shot through the neck (7SAUM/162AMAX/3050FPS)

People approach hunting like everything else in life, with prejudice and preconceptions. Everyone has that uncle or friend who was exceptionally biased for or against one or more of the many facets of hunting. Those preferences are passed along just like any other tradition. Much like the gentlemen in the example I cited above, there are those who feel that unless you are using a premium hunting bullet, you are asking for a failure. Perhaps blaming their misfortune on a fragmented bullet or anything other than their own diligence. These are usually the same folks who think match bullets are for range use only. Furthermore, there are far too many hunters who think that because they are using a “Diamond-Crowned-Golden-Trophy-Triple X-Wolf-Fang” Bullet, that simply hitting the animal will do the trick. There are also those who believe that because they paid top dollar for the latest super magnum from some prestigious firm, that anything and everything in their field of view, will drop dead in its tracks. Both of these beliefs are false, but they continue to enjoy popularity among most hunting parties.


These are whats left of two 120gr BTHP Match bullets that killed the deer and elk shown below, both of them fractured but they still did the job as good as I could have asked for. They were found on the opposing side of the impact

I’d like to add one more anecdotal story to the mix, one of my own;
Many years ago, I was on a mule deer doe hunt at the base of the Rocky Mountains near my home, and I was planning on head shooting them to maximize the meat in my freezer space. Expected shots were to be under a hundred yards on does that were likely used to human activity due to their rural location. The rifle I carried that day would stack five 75gr bullets into 3/8 inch. So naively I headed into the field with my plan, looking to fill the freezer.

For some damn reason, that was a very hard hunt, and finding a smooth-head wasn’t as easy as I’d hoped. We spent quite a bit of time trying to find the deer, who were much more skittish than anticipated, and the weather was becoming an issue as well. When I finally did get a shot, it was a fleeting moment before she was about to bolt into the woods. I quickly decided to take a shot, I dropped to a knee, and let it fly. But in my haste, I’d forgot about my plan to head shoot my target, and instead took the typically safer shoulder shot. The rifle I was shooting that day believe it or not, was a 25-06, and it was loaded with 75 grain Vmax bullets. If you didn’t already know, the Vmax is a varmint bullet, made to pop small animals and varmints. But even so, at 3300fps, that Vmax busted through not one, but both shoulders, and clean through the other side. She fell dead in her tracks. What’s more, it didn’t even damage the meat much. I ate that deer with great satisfaction.
I learned several lessons that day, first that I was lucky, and the second was bullets don’t always do what we expect or want them to. These examples demonstrate several points. And though many lessons could be taken from them both positively and negatively, the glaring truth that can be gathered from them all reiterates the central point to this whole discussion; shot placement rules.
I don’t mean to persuade readers to shoot one bullet type over another, nor do I intend on convincing them that my way is the right way. I only aim to help those who would listen to open your understanding. Let go of your bias and those learned from others. And no matter what you choose to shoot at your game, make sure that you can hit your intended target. Whenever asked, I always tell people to shoot what you and your gun shoot the best. It may not be exactly what the hunting rags would suggest, but more importantly, it should give you the confidence to hit your targets effectively.

-CBM

More pictures for your viewing pleasure:

Another Mule Deer taken with a Barnes Match Burner at 264 yards (140MB/264WM/3050FPS)

These are my Son’s first elk (530yds) and deer(490yds), both killed with a 120grBTHP/260Rem/2795FPS

This young cow elk fell to a single shot at 970 yds (183GrSMK/7SAUM/3000FPS)

Another Muley that fell at 620yds to the wicked combination of my 260 (140GrMatchBurner/260Rem/2930FPS)

This big bull fell at just over 500yds from one shot from the 7SAUM (183GrSMK/7SAUM/300FPS)

Sometimes a good neck shot presents itself, a kill can be made with less energy due to the sensitive nature of the neck. Never the less, this kill was made just under 400yds with the standard 175SMK/308/2700FPS

My first long range kill, taken at 880yds with a 190SMK/300WSM/3000FPS

Another antelope that fell at 300yds to one well placed 175SMK/308/2650

This goat fell to a single 130grBerger/6.5SAUM/3000FPS around 300yds, the damage done was surprisingly minimal, but due to perfect shot placement, she only went a few yards and toppled over.